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AGRA, 2013. Africa Agricultural Status Report: focus on staple foods. Nairobi, Kenya: Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa.

Amanor, K.S., 2013. Chinese and Brazilian Cooperation with African Agriculture: The Case of Ghana. Future of Agriculture Working Paper, 52.

Anang, B.T., Sipiläinen, T., Bäckman, S., and Kola, J., 2015. Factors influencing smallholder farmers ’ access to agricultural microcredit in Northern Ghana. Arrican Journal of Agricultural Research, 10 (24), 2460–2469.

Asare-Kyei, D., Forkuor, G., and Venus, V., 2015. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with  the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote  Sensing Approaches. Water.

ASCH, 2015. Crop pests and diseases: A manual on the most important pests and diseases of the major food crops grown by smallholder farmers in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Africa Soil Health Consortium.

Awo, M.A., 2012. Marketing and Market Queens: A Study of Tomato Farmers in the Upper East Region of Ghana. LIT Verlag Münster.

Baffes, J., 2005. The ‘Cotton Problem’. The World Bank Research Observer, 20 (1), 109–144.

Banful, A.B., 2011. Old Problems in the New Solutions? Politically Motivated Allocation of Program Benefits and the ‘New’ Fertilizer Subsidies. World Development, 39 (7), 1166–1176.

Barry, B., Kortatsi, B., Forkuor, G., Gumma, M.K., Namara, R., Rebelo, L.M., van den Berg, J., and Taube, W., 2010. Shallow Groundwater in the Atankwidi Catchment of the White Volta Basin: Current Status and Future Sustainability. Research Report. International Water Management Institute, (139), 1–22.

Bationo, A., Kihara, J., Vanlauwe, B., Waswa, B., and Kimetu, J., 2007. Soil organic carbon dynamics , functions and management in West African agro-ecosystems. Agricultural Systems, 94 (308), 13–25.

Bationo, A. and Mokwunye, A.U., 1991. Role of manures and crop residue in alleviating soil fertility constraints to crop production: With special reference to the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. In: A.U. Mokwunye, ed. Alleviating Soil Fertility Constraints to Increased Crop Production in West Africa SE  - 19. Springer Netherlands, 217–225.

Bernard, T. and Spielman, D.J., 2009. Reaching the rural poor through rural producer organizations? A study of agricultural marketing cooperatives in Ethiopia. Food Policy, 34 (1), 60–69.

Collier, P. and Dercon, S., 2014. African Agriculture in 50Years: Smallholders in a Rapidly Changing World? World Development, 63, 92–101.

Dasgupta, S. and Roy, I., 2011. Good Agricultural Governance: A resource guide focused on smallholder crop production. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Deininger, K., Xia, F., and Savastano, S., 2015. Smallholders’ Land Ownership and Access in Sub-Saharan Africa: A New Landscape?

Delville, P.L., Toulmin, C., Colin, J.-P., and Chauveau, J.-P., 2002. Negotiating Access to Land in West Africa: A Synthesis of Findings from Research in Derived Rights to Land. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development.

Diao, X., Thurlow, J., Benin, S., and Fan, S., 2012. Strategies and priorities for African agriculture: Economy wide perspectives from country studies. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute and World Resource Institute.

Djameh, C., Saalia, F.K., Sinayobye, E., Budu, A., Essilfie, G., Mensah-Brown, H., and Sefa-Dedeh, S., 2015. Optimization of the sorghum malting process for pito production in Ghana. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121 (1), 106–112.

Doss, C.R., 2006. Analysing technology adoption using micro-studies: Limitations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement. Agricultural Economics, 34, 207–219.

Enyong, L.A., Debrah, S.K., and Bationo, A., 1999. Farmers’ perceptions and attitudes towards introduced soil-fertility enhancing technologies in western Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 53 (2), 177–187.

ERIKSEN, C., 2007. Why do they burn the  bush? Fire, rural livelihoods, and conservation in Zambia. The Geographical Journal, 173 (3), 242–256.

Fafchamps, M. and Minten, B., 2012. Impact of SMS-Based Agricultural Information on Indian Farmers. The World Bank Economic Review, 26 (3), 383–414.

Fischer, E. and Qaim, M., 2012. Linking Smallholders to Markets: Determinants and Impacts of Farmer Collective Action in Kenya. World Development, 40 (6), 1255–1268.

Fosu, M., Sawadogo-Kabore, S., Bationo, A., Tabo, R., Buah, S.., Kanton, R., Bonzi, M., Fatondji, D., Hassane, O., and Abdou, A., 2008. Effient rainwater harvesting and nutrient management for high crop productivity in Volta Basin. In:  et al. Humphrey, ed. Fighting poverty through sustainable water use.

de Fraiture, C., Kouali, G.N., Sally, H., and Kabre, P., 2014. Pirates or pioneers? Unplanned irrigation around small reservoirs in Burkina Faso. Agricultural Water Management, 131, 212–220.

Gavian, S. and Fafchamps, M., 1996. Land Tenure and Allocative Efficiency in Niger. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78 (May), 460–471.

Hagos, H.G., 2012. Tenure (In)security and Agricultural Investment of Smallholder Farmers in Mozambique. Washington DC, No. 5.

Harris, F., 2002. MANAGEMENT OF MANURE IN FARMING SYSTEMS IN SEMI-ARID WEST AFRICA. Experimental Agriculture, 38 (2), 131–148.

Harvey, C.A., Rakotobe, Z.L., Rao, N.S., Dave, R., Razafimahatratra, H., Rabarijohn, R.H., Rajaofara, H., and Mackinnon, J.L., 2014. Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 369 (1639), 20130089.

Hauchart, V., 2007. No TitleDurabilité de l’agriculture en fonction des pratiques culturales actuelles et conseillées (Burkina Faso et Nord Ghana). Montpellier and Colombo.

Hayes, J., Roth, M., and Zepeda, L., 1997. Tenure Security, Investment and Productivity in Gambian Agriculture: A Generalized Probit Analysis. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79 (2), 369–382.

IFAD, 2003. PROMOTING MARKET ACCESS for the Rural Poor in Order to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Rome, Italy.

IFC, 2014. Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers: Learning from the Experiences of Microfinance Institutions in Latin America. Washington DC: International Finance Coorperation.

Jacks, D.S., O’Rourke, K.H., and Williamson, J.G., 2011. Commodity Price Volatility and World Market Integration since 1700. Review of Economics and Statistics, 93 (3), 800–813.

Karbo, N. and Agyare, W.A., 2002. Crop-livestock systems in Northern Ghana. In: G. Tarawali and P. Hiernaux, eds. Improving crop-livestock systems in the dry savannas of West and Central Africa. Reports from the workshop on crop-livestock systems in the dry savannas of West and Central Africa. Ibadan: IITA.

Lacombe, G., McCartney, M., and Forkuor, G., 2012. Drying climate in Ghana over the period 1960–2005: evidence from the resampling-based Mann-Kendall test at local and regional levels. Hydrological Sciences Journal.

Laux, P., Kunstmann, H., and Bárdossy, A., 2008. Predicting the regional onset of the rainy season in West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 28 (3), 329–342.

Mando, A., Brussaard, L., and Stroosnijder, L., 1999. Termite- and Mulch-Mediated Rehabilitation of Vegetation on Crusted Soil in West Africa. Restoration Ecology, 7 (1), 33–41.

Matuschke, I. and Qaim, M., 2009. The impact of social networks on hybrid seed adoption in India. Agricultural Economics, 40 (5), 493–505.

McGuire, S. and Sperling, L., 2016. Seed systems smallholder farmers use. Food Security.

Mrema, G.C., Baker, D., and Kahan, D., 2008. Agricultural mechanization in sub-Saharan Africa: time for a new look. FAO.

Mukwevho, R. and Anim, F.D.K., 2014. Factors Affecting Small Scale Farmers in Accessing Markets : A Case Study of Cabbage Producers in the Vhembe District , Limpopo Province of South Africa. journal of human ecology, 48 (2), 219–225.

Neumayer, K., 2014. Gender dimensions of rainwater and livelihoods management in rural crop-livestock systems. Practices and innovations in the Nakanbé river basin in Burkina Faso. Universität Wien.

Nin-Pratt, A., Johnson, M., Magalhaes, E., You, L., Diao, X., and Chamberlin, J., 2011. Yield Gaps and Potential Agricultural Growth in West and Central Africa. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute and World Resource Institute.

Ortmann, G.F. and King, R.P., 2007. Agricultural cooperatives II: Can they facilitate access of small-scale farmers in South Africa to input and product markets? Agrekon, 46 (2), 219–244.


Ouedraogo, I., Tigabu, M., Savadogo, P., Compaore, H., Oden, P.C., and Ouadba, J.M., 2010. LAND COVER CHANGE AND ITS RELATION WITH POPULATION DYNAMICS IN BURKINA FASO , WEST AFRICA. Land Degradation & Development, 21, 453–462.

Ouedraogo, M., Dembele, Y., and Some, L., 2010. Farmer perceptions and adaptation options to rainfall change: Evidence from Burkina Faso. Sécheresse, 21 (2), 87–96.

Ouédraogo, M., Tankoano, A., Ouédraogo, T.Z., and Guissou, I.P., 2009. Etude des facteurs de risques d'intoxications chez les utilisateurs de pesticides dans la région cotonnière de Fada N'Gourma au Burkina Faso. Environnement, Risques & Santé, 8 (4), 343–347.

Oweis, T. and Hachum, A., 2009. Supplemental irrigation for improved rainfed agriculture in WANA region. In: S.P. Wani, J. Rockström, and T. Oweis, eds. Rainfed Agriculture: Unlocking the Potential. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 1–310.

Paré, S., Söderberg, U., Sandewall, M., and Ouadba, J.M., 2008. Land use analysis from spatial and field data capture in southern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 127 (3–4), 277–285.

Salifu, A. and Funk, R., 2012. Farmer Based Organizations in Ghana [online]. Available from: [Accessed 13 Feb 2016].

Sharma, V.P., Jain, D., and Sourovi, D., 2012. Managing agricultural commercialization for inclusive growth in South Asia. New Delhi, India, No. Briefing Paper No. 6/2012.

Sow, P., Adaawen, S.A., and Scheffran, J., 2014. Migration, Social Demands and Environmental Change amongst the Frafra of Northern Ghana and the Biali in Northern Benin. Sustainability, 6, 375–398.

Taylor, J.R.N., Belton, P.S., Beta, T., and Duodu, K.G., 2014. Increasing the utilisation of sorghum, millets and pseudocereals: Developments in the science of their phenolic phytochemicals, biofortification and protein functionality. Journal of Cereal Science, 59 (3), 257–275.

Toé, A.M., Domo, Y., Héma, O.S., and Guissou, I.P., 2000. Epid{é}miologie des intoxications aux pesticides et activité cholinestérasique sérique chez les producteurs de coton de la région du Mouhoun/Epidemiology of the intoxications due to the pesticides and serum cholinesterasic activity in the cotton p. Etudes et recherches sah{é}liennes, (4–5), 39–48.

Vlek, P.L.G., Le, Q.B., and Tamene., L., 2008. CGIAR Science Council Secretariat. Rome, Italy.

Williamson, S., Ball, A., and Pretty, J., 2008. Trends in pesticide use and drivers for safer pest management in four African countries. Crop Protection, 27 (10), 1327–1334.

Wouterse, F. and Taylor, J.E., 2008. Migration and Income Diversification:: Evidence from Burkina Faso. World Development, 36 (4), 625–640.